Fight Against HIV/AIDS Pandemic Should ‘Move Beyond Debate’ Over Abstinence, Letter To Editor Says

“In the fight against AIDS, people tend to pit abstinence and fidelity programs against condoms,” Helene Gayle, president and CEO of CARE, writes in a Wall Street Journal letter to the editor in response to a recent Journal article. “That is a false dichotomy,” Gayle writes, adding that the “dynamics of HIV transmission vary from country to country, and HIV prevention strategies must be tailored to respond in each context.” She adds that prevention strategies should “give individuals a range of realistic choices to protect themselves and must reduce barriers that prevent people from making choices.” According to Gayle, it is “time to move beyond the debate about ‘more abstinence’ or ‘less abstinence’ and focus on the real challenge: the most effective and comprehensive use of all HIV prevention approaches at our disposal to save as many people as possible from HIV infection” (Gayle, Wall Street Journal, 5/31).

“Reprinted with permission from kaisernetwork. You can view the entire Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report, search the archives, or sign up for email delivery at kaisernetwork/dailyreports/healthpolicy. The Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report is published for kaisernetwork, a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation . © 2005 Advisory Board Company and Kaiser Family Foundation. All rights reserved. Continue reading

Higher HIV Risk In Young Black Males

New research is shedding light on why young black males who have sex with males have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States, even though their reported use of condoms is similar to males of other racial and ethnic backgrounds.

A key factor may be black men’s cultural beliefs about masculinity, which may influence how they choose their sex partners, make judgments about HIV risk and make decisions about condom use, according to a study to be presented Monday, May 2, at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in Denver.

Young black males who have sex with males have twice the number of new HIV infections as young Hispanic and white men who have male partners, according to Errol L. Fields, MD, PhD, MPH, lead author of the study and a pediatric resident at Children’s Hospital Boston and Boston Medical Center. They also are five times more likely to be HIV-infected than white males of similar ages.

“We interviewed young black men to hear the stories behind these statistics,” Dr. Fields said.

Thirty-five black males ages 18-24 years in New York City, upstate New York and Atlanta took part in semi-structured interviews that explored cultural and psychosocial factors that may influence how they choose sexual partners, assess HIV risk and decide whether to use condoms.

Most of those interviewed said they preferred to partner with men whom they perceived as masculine. Some of the young men said they allowed partners who were more masculine to control what sexual activity they engaged in and whether they used condoms.

“We found that their beliefs about masculinity may affect their ability to protect themselves against HIV,” Dr. Fields said. “For example, many believed that men who acted more feminine were at greater risk for HIV than men who acted more masculine. These beliefs may have led to greater risk behavior with men who were perceived to be masculine because they believed these men were less likely to have HIV.”

The study findings suggest that cultural beliefs about masculinity may affect HIV risk in black adolescents and young adult males who have male sexual partners and should be considered in prevention strategies directed toward this population, Dr. Fields concluded.

Source:
Susan Martin
American Academy of Pediatrics Continue reading

Immuron’s BioGard HIV Antibody Into A U.S. Clinical Trial

Immuron Ltd. (ASX: IMC), a biopharmaceutical company specializing in oral immunotherapy development and antibody manufacturing, announced today approval for a Phase II human clinical study in HIV/AIDS patients at a prestigious U.S. AIDS research center, and the award of a prestigious research grant for an HIV antibody. The announcement was made during the 27th Annual J.P. Morgan Healthcare Conference in San Francisco.

The study is being conducted by the Center for AIDS Research, a prominent NIH funded research program, at Case Western Reserve University. University Hospitals in Cleveland Ohio. The study is led by Professors Gopal Yadavalli, Benigno Rodriguez and Michael Lederman, Associate Director of the Center. The study aims to document the ability of Immuron’s BioGard ™ hyperimmune bovine colostrum powder formulation to decrease translocation of gut-derived microbial products and decrease immune activation in patients with early stage HIV infection. BioGard contains a mixture of anti-LPS and other antibodies active at the mucosal surface. The study will begin in calendar Q1 2009 and positive results could open a window to expanded trials of BioGard as part of routine HIV/AIDS therapy regimens. The study complements a recently announced multi-site clinical trial sponsored by the Australian National Center in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (NCHECR) examining the product’s efficacy in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing intensified therapy for persistent immune activation.

Dr. Zeil Rosenberg, Immuron CEO, stated, “We are thrilled with the interest that the Center for AIDS Research has in initiating this study so rapidly. We are even more hopeful now that our oral antibodies can create a new paradigm for addressing an emerging need in HIV patient care.”

Separately, Immuron announces that Associate Professor Damian Purcell, Head of the Molecular Virology Laboratory at the University of Melbourne, working with the Australian Centers for HIV and Hepatitis Virology, has been awarded a research grant by the Australian Department of Health and Aging to develop and test an Immuron produced hyperimmune colostrum powder formulation containing antibodies against HIV envelope antigens.

Dr. Oren Fuerst, VP Business development of Immuron stated: “Our unique technology platform allows for the rapid development of targeted antibodies. In addition to targeting HIV related inflammation, we are now developing antibodies against the virus causing AIDS itself.”

Immuron Limited (IMC.AX) (formerly named Anadis) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on antigen-primed, dairy-derived health products. Immuron’s proprietary and antibody manufacturing technology enables it to rapidly develop polyclonal antibody and other protein-based oral therapies to a range of important infectious and immune- mediated diseases, including Influenza, Oral and GI tract Mucositis, and HIV related intestinal damage.

Immuron Limited Continue reading

STDs Disrupt Genetic Bottleneck That Usually Constrains HIV Infection

Scientists have shown that HIV faces a genetic “bottleneck” when the virus is transmitted heterosexually from one person to another, by way of the
genital mucosa. The results, published January 23 in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens, explain why prior infection by other sexually- transmitted
diseases (STDs) makes individuals more susceptible to HIV infection.

The team of researchers, lead by Eric Hunter of Emory University, identified 20 heterosexual couples soon after infection occurred and obtained viral
genetic sequences from both partners. They examined the most variable region of the virus’ env gene, which encodes a protein forming the outer coat
of the virus. Approximately 90% of the couple recipients were found to be infected by a single viral variant of HIV-1. However, that variant was not
the same in each case.

For comparison, the researchers also analyzed a group of newly infected individuals who were infected by someone other than their spouse. This group
showed more variety in viral sequences, with 3 out of 7 individuals infected by multiple variants. Overall, out of 42 newly infected people studied to
date, all five infected by multiple viral variants had evidence of genital inflammation or ulceration.

In these cases, it appears that the bottleneck was enlarged due to the disruption of normally protective mucosal barriers by STDs. These findings
suggest that the genital mucosa provides a natural barrier to infection by multiple genetic variants of HIV-1 that can be lowered by inflammatory
genital infections.

To identify newly infected individuals, the team collaborated with public health programs directed by Susan Allen of Emory’s Rollins School of
Public Health that enroll thousands of heterosexual couples with one HIV- positive partner in Rwanda and Zambia.

The research was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Program and the
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.

CITATION:
“Inflammatory Genital Infections Mitigate a Severe Genetic Bottleneck in Heterosexual Transmission of Subtype A and C HIV-1. “
Haaland RE, Hawkins PA, Salazar-Gonzalez J, Johnson A, Tichacek A, et al. (2009)
PLoS Pathog 5(1): e1000274. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000274
Click here to view article online

About PLoS Pathogens

PLoS Pathogens publishes outstanding original articles that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they
interact with their host organisms. All works published in PLoS Pathogens are open access. Everything is immediately available subject only to the
condition that the original authorship and source are properly attributed. Copyright is retained by the authors. The Public Library of Science uses
the Creative Commons Attribution License.

PLoS Pathogens

About the Public Library of Science

The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a non-profit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world’s scientific and medical
literature a freely available public resource.

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More Intensive Methods Needed To Identify TB In HIV-Prone Populations

Identifying tuberculosis patients in Africa using passive methods is leaving many cases undiagnosed, according to researchers from the Netherlands, Kenya and the United States, who studied case detection methods in HIV-prone western Kenya. Tuberculosis (TB) occurs commonly in men and women with HIV, but in these patients TB can be more difficult to detect.

The findings were published online ahead of the print edition of the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

“Limited information exists on the prevalence of tuberculosis and the best methods of identifying TB patients in African populations with high rates of HIV,” said study author Anja van’t Hoog, MD, MSc, physician-researcher and epidemiologist, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam. “In this study, our goals were to estimate how many individuals have TB confirmed by bacteriological testing and the number of cases which occur along with HIV, as well as to evaluate case detection.”

In passive detection, which has been the method predominantly used in Kenya and globally since the 1970s, diagnoses are made only after patients present to health clinics and report a prolonged period of coughing. Dr. van’t Hoog, who conducted the study while serving as an epidemiologist at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, said more aggressive, intensive methods of detection are needed to help identify more cases, and identify them earlier.

“Previous studies have suggested that passive case finding might be adequate for TB control,” she noted. “However, TB epidemiology has changed dramatically as a result of the HIV epidemic, and there is little information available regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis and the effectiveness of case-finding in African populations with high rates of TB and HIV. ”

The researchers recruited 20,566 adults from 40 randomly sampled village clusters in a rural area of western Kenya and collected two sputum samples from each adult. Samples were evaluated using a smear microcopy test. Participants also were given questionnaires about their exposure to TB and nearly all participants agreed to undergo a chest X-ray. Those with abnormal X-ray findings or symptoms suggesting TB each provided an additional sputum sample for examination by sputum culture, a testing method which is much more sensitive than smear microscopy.

Following evaluation, 123 participants were identified as having tuberculosis. TB prevalence was greater among men, those who had received prior TB treatment and those in the lowest socioeconomic level. HIV information was available for 101 of the 123 TB-positive participants, of whom 51 percent were identified as being infected with HIV. The researchers estimated 48 percent of the undiagnosed burden of TB in the population is due to HIV.

Diagnosing TB earlier and more accurately can help prevent severe illness and death from TB, and reduce transmission of TB to other community members, Dr. van’t Hoog said. Men and women with HIV infection are at much greater risk of getting TB, but the presentation of TB is more often atypical in patients with HIV, making diagnosis more difficult, she added.

“Most of the identified TB cases in this study would not have been identified by the current case detection approach, which includes symptom recognition, sputum smear microscopy and chest X-ray,” Dr. van’t Hoog noted. “Culturing sputum samples offers more accurate results, but is a more complicated, costlier procedure, making it largely unavailable in resource-limited settings.

“This study identified a considerable prevalence of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in western Kenya, where rates of HIV infection are high,” she said. “The goals for TB control are unlikely to be met without continued improvements in case detection. Intensified case finding is required to control TB in this resource-limited, high HIV-prevalence setting, and future research should focus on ensuring these goals are met.”

Source:

American Thoracic Society Continue reading

Virus Hijacks Cell Division Machinery

Viruses are masters of deception, duping their host’s cells into helping them grow and spread. A new study has found that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can mimic a common regulatory protein to hijack normal cell growth machinery, disrupting a cell’s primary anti-cancer mechanism.

Writing in the May 9 issue of Science, researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard Medical School report that a viral protein, called UL97, masquerades as a normal regulatory enzyme to modify a tumor-suppressing protein in human cells. Unlike the normal enzyme, which can be switched on and off by the cell as needed, the viral stand-in lacks an off switch and evades cellular control. The findings represent a previously unknown way that viruses can cause uncontrolled cell growth and division.

Cells normally have tight regulatory mechanisms in place to limit multiplication to appropriate situations, such as replacing worn-out cells or repairing damage. Uncontrolled cell proliferation can lead to cancer and other disorders.

One of the most important cellular control mechanisms works through a protein called the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, which slows cell growth.

“The retinoblastoma pathway is like the brakes on a car. It prevents tumor cells from growing out of control,” says Robert Kalejta, an assistant professor in the UW-Madison Institute for Molecular Virology and McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, who led the new study. “This pathway is mutated in essentially all human cancers.”

Disrupting this pathway is also advantageous for viruses. Unable to reproduce on their own, viruses rely on co-opting their host’s cellular machinery, like an occupying army taking over a local factory. They are especially good at overriding or bypassing built-in control mechanisms, Kalejta says.

“Viruses are well known to encode proteins that have similar activities to cellular proteins, but they’re just different enough that they’re beneficial to the virus,” he says. “[UL97] shares the same activities as the cellular protein, but it lacks all of the control mechanisms.”

In essence, UL97 disables the brakes and hits the gas. Once a host cell is primed toward growth, HCMV takes over and steals the cell’s machinery to reproduce itself.

The virus’s bloodhound-like ability to seek out and target the most essential pieces of a cell’s machinery makes it a valuable research tool, Kalejta says.

“Viruses are smarter than we are. They know a lot more about cells than we do, because their life depends on it – they’re obligate intracellular parasites,” he says. “If they attack a part of the cell – a process or a protein – you know it’s important for the cell. If the virus pays attention to it, you should too.”

Kalejta next hopes to use UL97 to find other proteins that may be important for cell growth. He also sees potential clinical applications down the road. HCMV infection is very common and, though it remains asymptomatic in most people, it has been implicated in some cancers and can cause trouble in people with compromised or suppressed immune systems, such as AIDS patients and transplant recipients. In addition, UL97-like proteins are also found in the other seven human herpes viruses, some of which are directly linked to cancers.

The advantages of the research are two-fold, Kalejta says. “We’re studying a virus that causes human disease and might eventually find a way to treat that infection and help patients. At the same time, we’re learning about how the cell works, which has implications for patients that don’t have infections,” he says. “You get two for the price of one.”

###

Other authors on the paper include Adam Hume, Jonathan Finkel, and Michael Culbertson from UW-Madison and Jeremy Kamil and Donald Coen from Harvard Medical School. The work was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Wisconsin Partnership for a Healthy Future, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and the American Heart Association.

Source: Robert Kalejta

University of Wisconsin-Madison Continue reading

Pharmacists Play A Vital Role In Providing Immunizations In Their Communities

The American Pharmacists Association (APhA) applauds the efforts of pharmacists, public health, community leaders and other immunization stakeholders in their collaborative efforts to administer more than 90 million doses during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Today’s release by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the results regarding immunization rates of the general population and healthcare personnel demonstrate great strides made by immunization providers and that more work, education and collaboration are needed to further protect the public. With authority to administer vaccines in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, pharmacists and student pharmacists were integral to the achievements highlighted by the CDC today. “Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to play an important role in helping patients get immunizations,” said APhA CEO and Executive Vice President Thomas Menighan. “Pharmacies are located in virtually every community in the United States; many have extended hours of service, and offer immunization services without requiring patients to make an appointment. With pharmacists administering over 14 million influenza vaccine doses this season and collaborating with federal and state governments and other immunization stakeholders, ‘we “walked-the-walk’, not just talked about what we can do. We could have done more if we had timely access to vaccine.”

APhA conducts a national model certificate training program for pharmacists, “Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery” is based on CDC immunization practice standards. ; CDC officials and immunization experts participate in the curriculum development. The 20 hour training program is recognized by the CDC for its content and quality. APhA ramped up its efforts to train additional pharmacists to provide immunizations to address the public health risk posed by the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. To date, over 100,000 pharmacists have been trained to administer immunizations. Ninety-three percent of those trained went through programs administered by APhA and its 130 licensed partners in over 2,000 immunization training programs.

CDC’s survey highlights the need for continued outreach and education to healthcare personnel. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the CDC for healthcare workers. “Through outreach to student pharmacists, pharmacists and other pharmacy personnel, APhA has delivered the message that we must set a good example for our patients,” said to APhA Chief of Staff Mitch Rothholz.

As recently reported by the CDC, there has been a rise in the number of H1N1 cases in the Southeastern United States. There is currently regional flu activity in Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina, as well as local activity being reported in six other Southeastern states. H1N1 vaccinations are still available at pharmacies throughout the U.S. and individuals who have not been vaccinated against H1N1 are still encouraged to do so.

Source
American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Continue reading

Social Protection Needed To Protect And Support Children Affected By HIV And AIDS

In an effort to forge greater commitment for child sensitive social protection policies, 40 parliamentarians from ten countries in Eastern and Southern Africa are gathering for a three day meeting in Windhoek, Namibia. Hosted by the Parliament of Namibia in partnership with Inter-Parliamentary Union and UNICEF, the forum aims to build consensus amongst parliamentarians for efforts to scale up safety nets for the most vulnerable, especially children affected by HIV and AIDS. The meeting will stress the crucial role parliamentarians can play in scaling up social protection schemes, from shaping laws and approving budgets to holding governments accountable to their commitments and obligations.

In a region where more than half the population survives on less than $1.25 per day, an estimated 9.7 million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS, and millions more have experienced deepening poverty, lost education, and discrimination due to the impact of the HIV pandemic. Social protection schemes, however, have been enacted in several countries and are already having an impact by keeping children in school as well as improving their nutritional status and their protection from abuse.

“The proof is clear -child sensitive social protection schemes such as cash transfers, removal of user fees for health and education for the poorest, along with pro-poor policies, laws, and regulations, make a real difference in the lives of children who have to cope with the worst impact of extreme poverty.” said Elhadj As Sy, UNICEF’s Regional Director for Eastern and Southern Africa. “They can also foster social stability, particularly in countries with high levels of disparity and exclusion,”

Some of the middle income countries in Southern Africa, including Angola, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa are characterized by the most severe income inequalities in the world, as measured by the Gini coefficient.

In recent years, many African Governments have signed on to the value of using social protection schemes to tackle extreme poverty and vulnerability. The Livingstone Accord, signed by 13 governments in 2006 under the auspices of the African Union, agreed that social protection strategies be integrated into national development plans and budgets. This was followed by the Social Policy Framework for Africa, developed in Windhoek in 2008 which signaled increased support by the African Union. The Southern African Development Community also recently finalized its strategic framework for orphans and vulnerable children and youth, which provides a further roadmap for providing basic services to these often, excluded groups.

“Parliamentarians play a decisive role in garnering the necessary political support within countries to prioritize and commit to policies to target marginalized children and those suffering the brunt of the impact of HIV and AIDS,” said IPU President Dr. Theo-Ben Gurirab, who is also Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Namibia. “This meeting provides a valuable opportunity to learn from each other’s experience and build on the evidence that demonstrates how social protection can help mitigate the worst consequences of HIV and AIDs.”

Members of parliament will be able to share lessons learned, discuss the latest evidence from the region and gain a deeper understanding of the tools at their disposal to respond to the needs of vulnerable children and their families.

“We know from our experiences here in Namibia that for national social protection schemes to work they need to be owned and led not only by the Government but by Parliament as well. They need to be seen as an investment from the national treasury that contributes to a fairer, more just and caring society. It is parliamentarians who can create the dialogue in their constituencies to create the political will for these types of policies and it is parliamentarians who can ensure the national budget reflects these priorities” said .Dr. Theo-Ben Gurirab “This forum is an important step in building alliances across borders to create the demand within countries for these types of policies.”

Social Protection schemes have been identified as ways to care for those affected by HIV and AIDS and can also play a critical role in preventing new infections. Successful schemes in the region include Namibia, where universal pensions for children and the elderly have provided a safety net; South African Universal Child Grant, the largest cash transfer scheme on the continent; the Malawi cash transfer scheme, which targets the poorest ten percent of labor constrained families and which the Government has recently agreed to take to scale; and the Kenyan Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable children that reaches 90,000 households.

Note

Parliamentarians attending this event are from Angola, Burundi, DRC, Lesotho, Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda ,Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Source:

UNICEF

IPU Continue reading

Thailand’s HIV/AIDS Prevention Program Absent, Endangering Country, Advocates Say

Thailand’s HIV prevention program has all but disappeared, putting the country’s population at increased risk of contracting the virus, according to some HIV/AIDS advocates, Thailand’s Nation reports. Several HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment measures — including HIV/AIDS education for injection drug users; universal access to antiretroviral drugs; and “merit based” access to HIV/AIDS treatment for migrant workers — which the government in 2004 at the XVI International AIDS Conference in Bangkok said it would introduce, have not yet been implemented, Mechai Viravaidya, founder and chair of the Population & Community Development Association, said. According to Petchsri Sirinirund, an HIV/AIDS expert for the Ministry of Public Health’s Disease Control Department, the high mobility of migrant workers, of whom there are about two million in the country, helps to spread HIV. Mechai added that without prevention programs targeted at migrant workers, HIV will continue to spread among the general population. “Thailand’s acclaimed achievements in HIV prevention are history,” Mechai said, adding, “In the past three years, people working in the field have realized the epidemic is back.” According to the Nation, condom use among young people has decreased while the rate of sexually transmitted infections has increased. Petchsri said the 2007 national AIDS plan will focus on HIV prevention (Arthit, Nation, 5/24).

“Reprinted with permission from kaisernetwork. You can view the entire Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report, search the archives, or sign up for email delivery at kaisernetwork/dailyreports/healthpolicy. The Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report is published for kaisernetwork, a free service of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation . © 2005 Advisory Board Company and Kaiser Family Foundation. All rights reserved. Continue reading

The Cytoplasmic Talk Of Retroviruses Helps Them Spread From Cell To Cell

It is known that Retroviruses, such as HIV, that are already within cells
are much more easily transmitted when they spread through direct contact
between cells than if they are floating free in the blood stream. However,
how this contact stimulates virus- spreading has up until now been poorly
understood. In this week’s edition of the online open-access journal PLoS
Biology, researchers at Yale University, led by Dr. Walther Mothes, have
recorded movies of viral activity within cells that helps explains why
cell-to-cell transmission is so efficient and may in turn provide insights
into
potential targets for a new generation of Anti-Retroviral drugs.

“Cell-to-cell transmission is a thousand times more efficient, which is
why diseases such as AIDS are so successful and so deadly,” said Walther
Mothes, associate professor of microbial pathogenesis at the Yale School
of Medicine. “And because retroviruses spread through the tight cell-cell
interface, they are out of reach for the immune system.”

Using imaging technology that can track individual virus particles in real
time, the team discovered that retrovirus-infected cells can specifically
assemble daughter viruses at the point of contact between cells. Ten times
more of these particles are found at these cellular connection points than
elsewhere at the surface of cells, the researchers report. The ability of
infected cells to specifically produce viruses only at cell interfaces
offers an explanation of how viruses spread so efficiently. The team
identified a clue to how virus assembly is targeted to these points of
contact:
it involves a sticky viral protein called Env that docks with uninfected
cells and then attracts the viral particles to these sites. If this
adhesion
molecule lacked a key element, a “cytoplasmic tail,” then the viral
particles did not assemble at the patches of contact between cells.

Mothes expects many more such targets will be identified as scientists
work out the mechanics of cell-to-cell transmission. “We are just opening
the
door to this whole process,” Mothes said. “It is a black box and many,
many cellular factors have to be involved in making this happen. Our hope
is that somewhere down the road we will have a completely new anti-viral
strategy based on targeting cell-to-cell transmission.”

Funding:
The work is supported by a grant from the National Cancer
Institute ROI CA098727 to WM and a fellowship from amfAR Foundation for
AIDS
research to JJ. The funders had no role in the study design, data
collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the
manuscript.

Competing interests statement:
The authors declare that no competing
interests exist.

Citation:
“Assembly of the Murine Leukemia Virus Is Directed towards Sites of Cell-Cell Contact.”
Jin J, Sherer NM, Heidecker G, Derse D, Mothes W (2009)

PLoS Biol 7(7): e1000163. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000163

Source
PLoS Biology Continue reading